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Palm Kernel Cake   PALM KERNEL CAKE (PKC)

Palm kernel cake (PKC)  is a by-product of oil extraction from palm kernel. This by-product is ever increasing due to the increasing growth of the oil palm industry in Asia and Africa.

Malaysia in 2001 alone, produced  1.4 million tones of palm kernel oil together with 1.6 million tones of Palm kernel cake (PKC) as its by product from 3 million tones of palm kernel currently, most of the Palm kernel cake (PKC) produced in Malaysia is exported at a low price to Europe for use as cattle feed concentrates in dairy cows.

Palm kernel cake (PKC) is an established feed ingredient for ruminants, supplying valuable dietary sources of protein, energy and fiber. Palm kernel cake (PKC) has also been successfully tested in poultry feeds at low levels of incorporation. The low cost and

availability of Palm kernel cake (PKC) in many tropical countries where aquaculture is practiced have recently generated much interest in its potential use in fish diets.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME)
POME is the wastewater from palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment

Different grades of oil quality are obtained from the pericarp and the kernel, with the pericarp oil used mainly for cooking oil, and the kernel oil used in processed foods.

For each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year-round, the annual production averages 10 tones of fruit, which yields 3,000 kg of pericarp oil, and 750 kg of seed kernels, which yield 250 kg of high quality palm kernel oil as well as 500 kg of kernel meal. The meal is used to feed livestock. Some varieties have even higher productivities which has led to their consideration for producing the vegetable oil needed for biodiesel.

The African Oil Palm was introduced to Sumatra and the Malay area in the early 1900s; many of the largest plantations of oil palms are now in this area, with Malaysia growing over 20,000 square kilometers. Malaysia claims that in 1995 it was the world's largest producer with 51% of world production. In this area, the destruction of natural rainforest to grow oil palm plantations is an issue of major environmental concern. West African oil palm today has become an international oil crop from its commercial plantation center in Malaysia.
PKC is a reasonably good economic feed for cattle, both for fattening and supplementary feeding. It is an agro-industrial by-product that is being produced locally and within the Southeast Asian region in sizeable quantity and should thus be exploited fully.

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